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          The figures in the next series depend on the form of words.


          Tejnís or ‘Homonymy’ or ‘Paranomasia:’  this, which is a variety of pun, is one of the great favourites among the rhetorical figures, and is subdivided into a large number of classes.  It consists in the employment of words having the same or similar forms and sounds.


          The Jinás or ‘Homonymy’ is said to be ‘Perfect’ when [p. 116/117] the homonymous words have exactly the same form and sound, as in this couplet: —


ا يدر  اراقه  دم  حسرتكله  چشمانم

ترحّم  ايت  نيجه  دم  در  اسير  هجرانم



Ider iráqa-i dem hasretiñ-la cheshmánim;

Terrahum it, nije dem dir esír-i hijrán im.


‘Through yearning for thee my eyes pour forth blood;

‘Have pity! how long a time am I the thrall of separation!’


Here the Arabic word dem, ‘blood,’ and the Persian word dem, ‘time,’ have exactly the same form and sound.


          The Jinás is said to be Mefrúq or ‘Disjoined’ when the two terms are not written alike, as in this example: —


رخساريكى  اى  دلبر  آيينه يه  بكزتدم

وه  وه  نه  خطا  ايتدم  آيى  نه يه  بكزتدم



Rukhsáriñi, ey dilber, áyíneye beñzetdim;

Veh! veh! ne khatá etdim!  ayi neye beñzetdim?


‘O fair one, I likened thy face to the mirror;

‘Alack! alack! what a mistake I have made! to what have I likened the moon?’


Here the word áyíneye ‘to the mirror’ is matched by the two words ayi neye ‘the moon to what.’  By ‘the moon’ the face of the beauty is meant.



          The Jinás is Merfú or ‘Repaired’ when one of the terms is completed only by adding to it a portion of another word, as in this couplet by Safá Bey: —


يوقكن  كونشك  اشى  سماده   *   بر  اش  كورينوردى  شمسه  ماده


Yoq-ken guneshiñ eshi semáde

Bir esh gurinurdi shemse máde


‘Though the sun has no mate in the sky,

‘There appeared a mate to the sun in the water.’



Here to match the single word semáde ‘In the sky’ the last syllable of shemse ‘to the sun’ has to be taken along with the word máde ‘in the water.'  The mate of the sun [p. 117/118] in the water is of course the reflection.  This variety of Homonymy has always been very popular, even from the earliest times.  The following English example will make the principle quite clear: —


Wandering far, they went astray

When fell on the hills the sun's last ray.


          The Jinás is said to be Láhiq or ‘Contiguous’ when the two words have the same letters except one letter in each of the two; this irregular letter may be initial, medial or final.  In this example it is the initial letter that is irregular:


ثباتى  يوق  بو  عالمك  آكا  كيم  اعتماد  ايدر

       فرح  كلير  ترح  كيدر  ترح  كلير  فرح  كيدر


Sebátí yoq bu ‘álemiñ, aña kim i‘timád ider

Ferah gelir, terah gider, terah gelir, ferah gider.


‘Inconstant ever is the world, and he who doth thereon repose

‘Now gladly comes, now sadly goes, now sadly comes, now gladly goes.’


The ‘gladly' and ‘sadly’ of the translation, which represent the ferah and terah of the original, suggest the Jinás.


          The Jinás is Náqis or ‘Defective’ when one of the terms has an initial letter, initial, medial, or final.  (As in the words سن and حسن ; الجا and التجا ; باد and بادى .)

          The Jinás is Muharref or ‘Altered’ when the letters of the terms are all alike, but the vowel points differ, as in the couplet: —


شهرين  ايچنده  شهرتى  آرتار  جمالنك

       اوصاف  ورد  عارضى  ورد  زبان  اولور


Shehriñ ichinde shuhreti artar jemáliniñ

Evsáf-i verd-i ‘árizi vird-i zebán olur.


‘The fame of her beauty increaseth in the city,

‘The praise of her rose-cheek is the theme of (every) tongue.’


Here the letters in the words vrd ‘rose’ and vrd ‘theme’ are alike, it is only the vowel points (usually unmarked in Eastern writings) that differ. [p.118/119]


          The Jinás is said to be Khattí or ‘Scriptory’ when the form of the two words is the same, but the dots differ.  (As in the words تسحير and تسخير .)


          Qalb or ‘Anagram:’ this is reckoned among the varieties of the Jinás.  When the transposition of the letters is total, as in the English words ‘live’ and ‘evil,’ the Anagram is said to be ‘Perfect.’  This verse contains an example: —


اوكنه  ابر  سياهى  چكه رك   *   ايتدى  پنهان  كلف  بدرى  فلك


Öñine ebr-i siyáhi chekerek,

Etdi pinhán kelef-i bedri felek.


‘Drawing a dark cloud before it,

‘The sky concealed the freckles (i.e. the spots) of the moon.’


When the transposition of the letters is only partial, the Anagram is said to be Ba‘z or ‘Partial.’ (As in the words اهمال ihmál and امهال imhál; مادر máder and مدار medár; جانى jání and ناجى nájí.)


          Qalb-i Musteví or ‘Palindrome:’ in this, which is an extended anagram, a complete line, sometimes a complete distich, is the same when read backward or forward.   In this couplet of Nazmí each line is palindromic: —


البى  لعل  درد  لعلى  بلا   *   او  در  او  روحه  حور  وار  دوا


‘Her blandishments are ruby (i.e. intoxicating like ruby wine), the pain caused by her ruby (red lip) is anguish;

‘It (her ruby lip) is houri-like, the cure for that soul (i.e. the lover's).’